Making of Indian Constitution

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M N Roy, a pioneer of communist movement in India, first gave the idea of constituent assembly for Making of Indian Constitution in 1934. In 1935, Indian national Congress party first time official demanded constituent assembly for making of Constitution of India . In 1938, Jawahar Lal nehru, on the behalf of Congress party declared that Constitution for independent Indian must be made by constituent assembly elected on the basis of adult franchise .

  • Demand was accepted in August offer 1940
  • Cabinet mission

Composition of constituent assembly for Making of Indian Constitution

  • Formed under cabinet mission plan 1946
  • Total strength of constituent assembly to be 389
  • 296 seats for British India and 93 for princely states
  • Province and princely states to be allotted seats in proportion to their population. One seat for one million population
  • In provinces, seats to be divided among three principal communities- Muslim, Sikhs and general
  • Assembly had representatives of all sections of Indian society – Hindus, Muslims , Sikhs parsis, Anglo Indians , Indian Christians , SC and st

Working of constituent assembly for Making of Indian Constitution

  • First meeting on 9 December 1946
  • Muslim league boycotted the meeting and insisted for Pakistan
  • Only 211 members present
  • Dr sachchidananda Sinha , the oldest member was elected as temporary president of assembly, following the French practice
  • Dr rajendra Prasad was elected president of constituent assembly for making of Constitution of India
  • Hc mukherjee and VT krishnamachari – vice presidents

Objective resolution by Jawahar Lal Nehru

  • 13 December 1946
  • It laid down fundamentals and philosophy of constitutional structure
  • Resolution was adopted by assembly on 22 Jan 1947

Changes by Independence act

  • 3 June 1947 after acceptance of mountbatton plan for partition on India , almost all princely states joined it
  • Assembly was a fully soverign body.
  • Assembly became a legislative body
  • When ever assmebly met as constituent body it was chaired by Dr Rajendra Prasad
  • When it met as legislative body it was chaired by GV mavlankar

Other functions performed by constituent assembly for making of Constitution of India

  • Ratified indias membership of common wealth in May 1949
  • National flag on July 22 1947
  • National anthem January 24 1950
  • National song on 24 January 1950
  • Elected Dr Rajendra Prasad as first president of India on 24 January 1950
  • 11 sessions for two years, 11 months and 18 days
  • Gone through Constitution of 60 countries
  • Draft Constitution was considered for 114 days
  • Total expenditure amounted to 64 lakh
  • Final session 24 January 1950
  • Provisional parliament ceased to exist on 17 April 1952 and first elected parliament with two houses started from MAY 1950
  • GENERAL election 1951-1952

Committees of constituent Assembly Making of Indian Constitution

  • 8 major committees and other minor committees

Jawahar Lal Nehru

Major committees

  • Union power committee
  • Union Constitution committee
  • States committee
  • States committee ( committee for negotiating with states)

Minor committees

  • Special committee to examine the draft Constitution

Sardar Patel

Major committees

  • Provincial Constitution committee
  • Advisory committee on fundamental rights, minorities and tribal and excluded area ( This committee had 5 sub committees under it)

B R Ambedkar

Major committee

  • Drafting committee

Rajendra Prasad

Major committee

  • Rules of procedure committee
  • Steering committee

Minor committee

  • Finance and staff committees
  • Ad hoc committees on national flag

J B Kriplani

  • Fundamental rights sub committee

H C Mukherjee

  • Minorities sub committee

Gopinath Bardoloi

  • North east frontier Tribal areas and Assam excluded areas sub committees

No chairman

  • North West frontier Tribal areas sub committees

Other minotiry sub committees

Alladu krishnaswami Ayyar

  • Credentials committee

Pattabhi Sitaramayya

  • House committee
  • Committee on chief commissioner province

K M Munshi

  • Order of business committee

GV Mavalankar

  • Committee on functions of constituent assembly

S Varadachari

  • Ad Hoc committee on supreme Court
  • Ad hoc committee on citizenship

Nalini Ranjan Sarkar

  • Expert committee on Financial provisions of Union Constitution

S K Dhar

  • Linguistic provinces commission

Usha Nath sen

  • Press Gallery committee

Drafting Committee

  • Most important committee
  • Set up on 19 August 1947

Members of drafting committee

  • Dr B R Ambedkar ( chairman )
  • N Gopalaswamy Ayyangar
  • Alladu Krishnaswami Ayyar
  • Dr K M Munshi
  • Syed Mohammed Saadullah
  • N Madhava Rau ( Replaced BL mitter
  • T T krishnamachari ( replaced D p Khaitan who died in 1948

Enactment of constitution

  • Adopted on November 26 1949
  • Contained a preamble, 395 articles and 8 schedules

B R Ambedkar

  • Father of Constitution of India
  • Cheif architect of Constitution of India
  • Modern Manu

Enforcement of the Constitution

  • 26 Jan 1950 came into force
  • 26 January was chosen beacue of it’s historical importance
  • On 26 Jan 1930 purna SWARAJ was declared following the resolution of Lahore session December 1929 of INC

Criticism of constituent assembly

  • Not a representative body
  • Not a soverign body
  • Time consuming
  • Dominated by Congress
  • Lawyer politician Domination
  • Dominated by Hindus

Important Facts

  • Elephant was adopted as symbol of constituent assembly
  • Sir B N Rau – the constitutional advisor
  • H V R Iyengar was the secretary f constituent assembly
  • S N Mukherjee – chrief draftsman of constitution in constituent assembly
  • Prem Bihari Narain Raizada – calligrapher of Indian constitution
  • Beautification and decoration by artists from shantiniketan including Nanda Lal Bose and Beohar Rammanohar Sinha
  • Beohar Rammanohar Sinha illuminated, beautified and ornamented the original preamble calligraphed by Prem Behari Narain Raizada
  • Calligraphy of Hindi version was done by vasant Krishna vidhya and elegantly decorated and illuminated by Nanda Lal bose

Asif Islam

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